Vital Disciplines in Karma-yoga (Part 2)

Austerity (Continued)

The Meaning of Tapas

The Sanskrit word for austerity is tapas. Tapas literally means "heat." Tapas is practiced to purify the mind by burning the impurities within. Holy Mother Sri Sarada Devi practiced panchatapa, "the austerity of five fires." It involves sitting in meditation throughout the day with four burning fires around, the midday sun burning overhead being the fifth fire. The embodiment of purity that Holy Mother was, she did not practice this austerity for attaining purity, but to set an example for others.

Sri Shankaracharya underlines the importance of tapas in his commentary on the Taittiriya Upanishad (3.1.1): "Tapas is the best discipline, for of all the means that are causally related with definite ends, tapas is known to be the best. Tapas consists in control of the external and internal organs." In other words, tapas is the best means to accomplish anything. This applies to secular as well as spiritual life. A study of the Vedantic view of human personality can help us understand the second part of the text in the commentary, which defines tapas as control of the external and internal organs.

The Sensory System, Manas and Buddhi

According to the Bhagavad Gita (3.42), "The sense organs are superior [to sense objects and the body]; superior to the sense organs is manas [the mind]; superior to manas is buddhi [the discriminative faculty]; and superior to buddhi is He [the Atman]." There are five organs of action: the mouth, hands, feet, and the organs of evacuation and generation. More important are the five organs of knowledge: ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose. They are so called because they bring us knowledge of the world through five perceptions: sound, touch, sight, taste and smell. The above ten visible organs have invisible, subtle counterparts, which make their presence felt in dream, when we perceive and act even though the external organs are not functioning. But the mind is the ruler of all the organs, since it can attach itself to any of them and make perception possible. Manas is the deliberative faculty of the mind. It is fickle and restless. Superior to it is buddhi, the discriminative and determinative faculty of the mind, and the seat of decision-making and willpower. Buddhi helps us discipline manas. Superior to buddhi is the real Self, the Atman, the infinite, eternal substratum of the body, senses and mind.

How We Perceive

In the perception of sight, for example, when rays of light from an object strike the retina, an impulse is carried to the brain, which transfers it to manas. Manas then presents it to buddhi, which scans previously stored impressions and sends back a reaction that goes successively to manas, the brain, the eyes, and the object. All this happens in a flash. The Atman is the substratum on which buddhi, mind, sense organs and sense objects form a chain in the process of perception. The other four perceptions take place similarly through the respective sense organs.

The Difficulty of Concentrating the Mind

The sense organs and the mind are naturally outward-directed. The mind is ever ready to attach itself to any sense organ, and every sense organ is eager to be in contact with sense objects-the ears are drawn to all sounds, the eyes to all objects of sight, and so on.

The mind is usually in a state of flux-restless, fickle, obstinate, tense, anxious, or confused. It is never still, but always thinks about something that is to happen or something that has happened, and all in a random way. Concentrating such a mind on a task in hand is perhaps the greatest challenge for anyone in any walk of life. We, the discriminating self, try to do something, but the mind has its own agenda. And in the process, it carries us along with it.

Part 3

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